Possible complications according to the Stanford School of Medicine include: bleeding, infection, excessive foreskin removed, adhesions/skin bridges, inclusion cysts, abnormal healing, meatitis, meatal stenosis, urinary retention, chordee (curvature of the penis due to scarring), hypospadias and/or epispadias (an injury that relocates the urethral opening), reaction to drugs used for anesthesia, unsatisfactory cosmetic outcome, decreased penile sensation, damage to the tip of the penis, urethrocutaneous fistula, necrosis of the penis, amputation of the glans, and in extreme cases, death.

Statistics on the precise risk and incidence of complications in circumcisions are difficult to find and often dismissed as a result of unsanitary conditions, untrained physicians, and improper aftercare.

Complications diagnosed in adulthood are often written off as “normal aging”, when in fact decreased sensitivity is the result of what had been mucous membrane drying and callousing over decades.